The outcomes table displays all outcomes collected according to study phase and categories. Each outcome is categorized and listed according to availability in each Phase of DPP/DPPOS. Years in DPPOS are approximate since outcome years span multiple funding periods.

Category Outcome DPP & Bridge DPPOS 1
(Yrs 1-7)
DPPOS 2
(Yrs 8-13)
DPPOS 3
(Yrs 14-20)
DPPOS 4-Planned
(Yrs 21+)
Questionnaires SES Baseline 1 8 14  
Questionnaires Medical health history Baseline, Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr
Questionnaires Metformin adherence Baseline, Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr
Questionnaires Medication adherence barriers Baseline, Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr    
Questionnaires Concomitant medicationsa Baseline, Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr
Questionnaires Insulin regimen   Annual Annual Annual Annual
Questionnaires Nutritional supplement     11, 12 Annual  
Questionnaires Rose questionnaire Baseline, Annual Annual Annual Annual  
Questionnaires Cancer screening     11 Annual Annual
Questionnaires Drinking and smoking Baseline, Annual Annual Annual Annual Annual
Questionnaires Beck Anxiety Baseline, Annual Midyr Midyr    
Questionnaires Beck Depression Baseline, Annual Midyr Midyr 15, 19, 20  
Questionnaires QWB Baseline, Annual Annual 8, 10, 11 16  
Questionnaires Economics EOS 4 10 16  
Questionnaires SF36 Baseline, Annual Midyr:1, 5 Midyr: 8, 10, 11, 12 15, 19, 20  
Questionnaires MAQ Baseline, Annual Annual Midyr    
Questionnaires LOPAR Baseline, 6mo, Annual        
Questionnaires Behavioral, diet, activity     Annual    
Questionnaires Nutrient intake Baseline ,Y1 1, 2, 5 11    
Questionnaires Urinary incontinence EOS Annual Annual 15, 19  
Questionnaires Intervention support Annual        
Questionnaires Retention life events barriers Midyr        
Traditional Mechanisms HbA1c (%) Baseline, Annual Annual+Midyr(DM) Annual+Midyr(DM) Annual Annual
Traditional Mechanisms Fasting glucose Baseline, Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual Annual
Traditional Mechanisms Fasting insulin Baseline, Annual Annual Annual 14, 16, 18, 19 Annual
Traditional Mechanisms OGTT Annual(NDM), Washout Annual(NDM) Annual(NDM) 14, 16, 18, 19 (NDM) Annual (NDM)
Traditional Mechanisms 30-minute insulin Annual(NDM) Annual(NDM) Annual(NDM)    
Traditional Mechanisms Proinsulin Baseline, Annual        
Traditional Mechanisms Lipids (TG, HDLc, HDLc, Total, VLDLc) Baseline, Annual Annual Annual 14, 16, 18, 20  
Traditional Mechanisms Serum creatinine Baseline, Annual(MET+PLBO) Annual Annual Annual Annual
Traditional Mechanisms Liver function (AST, ALT) Baseline, Annual(ALT only, MET+PLBO)        
Traditional Mechanisms Waist Baseline, Annual Annual Annual 14, 16, 19, 20  
Traditional Mechanisms Hip Baseline, Annual        
Traditional Mechanisms Weight Baseline, Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual Annual
Traditional Mechanisms Height Baseline 1 11 15, 18  
Traditional Mechanisms Blood Pressure Baseline, Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual  
Traditional Mechanisms Hormones (SHBG, E1/E1-S, E2, DHEA, DHEAS, Androstenedione, Testosterone, FSH) Baseline, Y1        
Traditional Mechanisms Genotypes Baseline        
Non-traditional Mechanisms Cystatin   1, 5 8, 9-11 (stored)    
Non-traditional Mechanisms CT Scans: visceral and subcutaneous fat Baseline, Y1 (n=1200)        
Non-traditional Mechanisms Epicardial and Liver fat (CAC)     10    
Non-traditional Mechanisms Abdominal fat (subcutaneous & visceral)     10    
Non-traditional Mechanisms Fibrinogen Baseline, Y1, EOS, DM 1, 5, DM 11 (stored)    
Non-traditional Mechanisms tPA old Baseline, Y1, EOS        
Non-traditional Mechanisms tPA new Baseline, Y1, DM 1, DM      
Non-traditional Mechanisms CRP Baseline, Y1, EOS, DM 1, 5, DM      
Non-traditional Mechanisms ApoB Baseline, Y1, DM 1, DM      
Non-traditional Mechanisms Uric acid   1      
Non-traditional Mechanisms Inflammation (IL-6, MCP-1) Baseline, Y1, EOS, DM 1, 5, DM 11 (stored)    
Non-traditional Mechanisms Endothelial dysfunction (E-selectin / s-ICAM1) Baseline, Y1, DM 1, DM 11 (stored)    
Non-traditional Mechanisms Adiponectin Baseline, Y1, DM DM 11 (stored)    
Non-traditional Mechanisms Leptin Baseline, Y1, DM 1, DM      
Non-traditional Mechanisms Lipoprotein subfractions (NMR) Baseline, Y1        
Non-traditional Mechanisms LDL particle size and density (DGUC) Baseline, Annual 1, 5 11    
Non-traditional Mechanisms Homocysteine   1 9    
Non-traditional Mechanisms Vitamin B12   1(MET+PLBO) 9(MET+PLBO) 14(MET+PLBO), 16(All), 19(All)  
Non-traditional Mechanisms Metabolites Baseline, Y2        
Non-traditional Mechanisms Autoantibodies (GAD55,IA2) Baseline        
Non-traditional Mechanisms ProBNP Baseline,Y2        
Microvascular Monofilament   Annual Annual Annual Annual
Microvascular MNSI   Annual Annual 13, 17,18, 19 Annual (questionnaire only)
Microvascular Neuropathy pinprick & vibration       17, 18, 19 Annual
Microvascular Albuminuria Baseline, EOS, CON Annual; CON Annual, CON Annual Annual
Microvascular eGFR Baseline, Annual(MET+PLBO) Annual Annual Annual Annual
Microvascular Fundus   1 (sample), 5 11 16  
Microvascular OCT       16  
Microvascular Sexual function       15  
Aging outcomes Cognitive function     8, 10 15, 18, 20  
Aging outcomes Physical function     8, 10 15, 18  
Aging outcomes 6-minute walk test       15, 18  
Aging outcomes Spirometry       15, 18  
Aging outcomes Falls     12 Annual Annual
Aging outcomes Activities of Daily Living/IADL       13, 15, 17, 19, 20  
Aging outcomes DXA (Bone Density, Fat Distribution)     12 17  
Subclinical outcomes ABI Baseline, Y1, Y3, CON 5 10    
Subclinical outcomes ECG abnormalities Baseline, Annual Annual Annual 14, 16, 18  
Subclinical outcomes Heart rate variability Baseline, Annual Annual Annual 14, 16, 18  
Subclinical outcomes CAC     10    
Event outcomes SAE Baseline,Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr
Event outcomes Cancer Baseline,Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr
Event outcomes CVD Baseline,Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr
Event outcomes Gastric surgery     Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr
Event outcomes Dialysis or kidney transplant     Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr
Event outcomes Eye surgery     Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr
Event outcomes Death Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr Annual+Midyr